This research analyses seven metropolitan regions that are all experiencing rapid motorisation and are perhaps appearing to capitulate to the automobile. Through 20 years of changes, evidenced in systematic data from the mid-1990s, none of the urban regions appear near to or even capable of becoming automobile cities. Physical limits are already being reached that make higher levels of car use impossible if transport systems are to remain functional and the cities livable. The evidence suggests that automobile dependence is not an irresistible force in cities of emerging economies, but depends on their planning and transport priorities (car-oriented or public transport, walking and cycling oriented).
The article can be read here: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/9/11/1953
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