The objective of the Working Paper series is to quickly publish new research results. The Working Papers series contain preliminary reports intended for publication in specialized journals and serves as basis for academic debate and conferences.
The current study explores the working conditions of lesbian women in Germany. It compares lesbian women's experiences to those of heterosexual women and examines the level of discrimination during job-application for women who enter professional life. The results of an experimental setting indicate that lesbian women do face discrimination when applying for jobs, as they are less often invited for job interviews. Another important result, based on survey among lesbian and heterosexual women shows that lesbian women experience stronger discrimination on the job due to their gender than their sexual orientation.
Between 2006 and 2009, the authors studied the role of gender-specific negotiation skills of women for their advancement and obtained salary (Ruppert/Voigt 2009). In 2017, a follow-up study with the same methodological design examined to what extent the results found at that time are still applicable. We see that ten years after the implementation of the original study things are (mostly) as they were: men generally have a much more positive attitude towards negotiation and women are more frequently nervous and fearful in salary negotiations. Neither gender invests a lot of time in preparing for negotiations. And in the end we can note again: men achieve significantly better results.
Today we live in a post-truth and highly digitalized era characterized by the flow of (mis-)information around the world. Identifying the impact of this information on stock markets and, moreover, forecasting stock returns and volatilities has become a much more difficult, and perhaps an almost impossible, task purpose. This paper investigates the impact of macroeconomic factors on the German main stock index, the DAX30, for the time period from 1991 to 2016. There are no comparable investigations for the DAX regarding this time period and the GARCH approach in the literature. Using a dataset about 23 variables and over a timeframe of about 25 years, we find evidence that the growth rates of money supply M1 have a strong impact on the stock returns. The results illustrate that in the post-crisis period more macroeconomic factors have a significant impact on the German stock market compared to the pre-crisis period. This implies that in the post-crisis period a macro-driven market is prevailing. In the post-crisis period, however, increasing saving rates, M2 and M3 lead to shrinking stocks values due to higher risk aversion.
Economic theory implies that research and development (R&D) efforts increase firm productivity and ultimately profits. In particular, R&D expenses lead to the development of intellectual property (IP) and IP commands a return that increases overall profits of the firm. This hypothesis is investigated for the North American automotive supplier industry by analyzing a panel of 5000 firms for the years 1950 to 2011. Results indicate that R&D expenses in fact increase profitability at the firm level. In particular, increases in the R&D expense to sales ratio lead to increases in the profit contribution of intangible assets relative to sales. This indicates that more R&D intensive IP should command higher royalty rates per sales when licensed to third parties and within multinational enterprises alike.
Autor: Stefan Lutz
What assessment and expectations do students have?
In 2015, the authors already presented the results of a study on the influence of the selected negotiation strategy and the gender of the negotiating person, and they examined the interaction that these two variables have on the negotiation success of executives in salary negotiations (see Ruppert/Voigt 2015b). This study showed that executives rate negotiation tactics that are part of a fact-oriented, cooperative negotiation strategy as better in terms of the chances of success in salary negotiations than negotiation tactics that are used in the context of an assertion-oriented, hard negotiation strategy. In the survey experiment they performed in this study, the fact-oriented, cooperative negotiation strategy proved to be more successful (even if only minimally) than the assertion-oriented, hard strategy (see Ruppert/Voigt 2015b). In parallel to this research project with executives, they also performed a study with students using the same methodological tools and compared the results of the two studies. We see that the assessments and expectations of the students clearly differed from those of the executives. These differences have implications for teaching at universities, in particular in terms of teaching key skills that need to be discussed further.
Authors: Andrea Ruppert and Martina Voigt
for Recipients of Disability Insurance Benefits in Switzerland
This paper evaluates a placement coaching program implemented in Zurich during 2009–2013 that focused on the reemployment of persons drawing disability insurance (DI) benefits. A private company was commissioned to implement the program. Kernel-based matching and radius matching with bias adjustment estimators combined with difference-in-differences are applied to administrative panel data. The estimates point to a successful project in terms of a reduction in DI benefits and an increase in income even in the medium-run. A simple cost–benefit analysis suggests that the project was a profitable investment for the social security system. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the results are robust to confounders and further specification issues. An interesting policy implication is that it seems possible to enhance the employment prospects of disabled persons with a relatively inexpensive intervention which does not include any explicit investments in human capital.
Published in: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation 28: 1–19.
Author: Tobias Hagen
Women in management positions in Germany are still underrepresented. it appears that the measures used for changing the situation have not been sufficient to date. Numerous studies already deal with the barriers that women encounter and how to diminish / prevent them. However, it is apparent that the previous tools and measures are not sufficient to help more women accede to management positions and be accepted. This study looks at the observed behaviors that are a sign of acceptance of executives. We assume that acceptance can have a significant impact on a career. Initial results indicate that, in the perception of the respondents, particularly acceptance from executives and colleagues has an impact on professional success. Furthermore, different indicators can be identified depending on the gender of the executive.
Authors: Caprice Weissenrieder und Anastassja Spura
Sustainability has been defined by the Brundtland Commission (Brundtland, 1987) as “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”.
In times of increasing expectations of customers, shareholders, employees, and communities as well as the general public about corporations’ contributions to sustainability (WBCSD - World Business Council for Sustainable Development), the latter are severely and continuously criticized for actions that contradict their glossy sustainability reports (Holliday, 2010). However, it is often the case that such criticism is rooted in a lack of awareness of the complexity of relationships and the role that sustainability plays within the context of a firm’s operations, particularly SMEs, which cannot dedicate major resources to cope with the issues. Therefore, the question arises of what universities can do to build awareness and understanding among students in order to prepare them to cope with sustainability aspects in their future careers (Starik et al., 2010). This paper presents findings based on quantitative and qualitative data from five consecutive cross functional courses in sustainability for students in business, law, architecture, health management and engineering, and evaluates the extent to which their attitude and awareness changed over the course. Recommendations are given for institutions in higher education as well as for companies to follow up with further training initiatives for junior managers.
Author: Erika Graf
The topic of gender-specific differences in terms of career opportunities is controversial. Different studies show that compared to other European countries, the potential of women in Germany, in particular well-educated women, has not been fully exhausted. This study intends to show to what extent the company culture, i.e. values, standards, attitudes, convictions, behaviors, and processes prevalent in the companies, has a beneficial or detrimental effect on the career perspectives of women.
Authors: Caprice Weissenrieder, Regine Graml, Tobias Hagen, Yvonne Ziegler
Published in revised form as: Weissenrieder, C., Graml, R., Hagen, T. und Ziegler, Y. (2017): Ist die gläserne Decke noch aktuell? Untersuchung wahrgenommener Aspekte der Unternehmenskultur und der geschlechtsspezifischen Unterschiede in Karrierechancen (German only). In: GENDER Zeitschrift für Geschlecht, Kultur und Gesellschaft, Volume 1/17, pp. 115–132.
The study investigates the gender-differentiated success chances of an assertion-oriented, hard and fact-oriented, cooperative negotiation strategy as well as individual negotiation tactics during a salary negotiation.
Authors: Andrea Ruppert und Martina Voigt
Consumption on the Mortality Rate of Prostate and Ovarian Cancer
Published in the American Journal of Medical Research 2(2), 2015, 7–41
Authors: Tobias Hagen und Stefanie Waldeck
and Fiscal Performance After the 2007 Financial Shock – Econometric Analyses Based on Cross-Country Data
Author: Tobias Hagen
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